ABSTRACTS Keynote presenters:
Dr. Marie McCarthy
Professor at University of Michigan, School of Music, Theatre and Dance.
AWAKENING TO THE SPIRITUAL IN CHILDREN’S DEVELOPMENT, CONTEMPLATING ANEW THE LANDSCAPES OF MUSIC EDUCATION
The phenomenon of spirituality in educational philosophy and practice has received much attention in recent years. Exploring the confluence of spirituality and music in children’s development holds promise for framing a more holistic approach to and deeper under- standing of music in human experience and learning. Theories related to children’s spiritual development are interfaced with perspectives on the spiritual affordances of participation in music, thus forming a basis for the inclusion of the spiritual in discourse about children’s music education. Approaches to human learning that account for the spiritual (e.g. contemplative pedagogy, anthroposophy) are examined and applied to music learning experiences. Challenges are recognized and issues are raised, and in the process, potential meanings of the spiritual in the context of children’s music education are refined and clarified. The presentation closes by creating pathways on the landscape of contemporary music education that integrate spiritual dimensions of children’s music making into the core of classroom pedagogy.
Dr. June Boyce-Tillman
Professor of Applied Music, University of Winchester, UK
YOU GOTTA GET A GLORY IN THE WORK YOU DO – THE GOD DELUSION IN MUSIC EDUCATION
This keynote presentation will examine the place of process philosophy (Whitehead 1929 Process and Reality) underpinning the aesthetics of Dewey (1934) and Shusterman (2008) and the ‘sacred ignorance’ of the theology of liberation theologians (Keller and Dan- ielle 2002, Christ 2003) in an understanding of musicking (Small 1998) as spiritual. The new atheisms (Dawkins 2006, Beattie 2007, Keen 2010, De Botton 2012) will be seen as liberating western culture from Cartesian elements within Western Christianity (Claxton 2010), which had developed forms of idolatry that had become exclusive (Pratt 2012). It will explore how shifts from dogmatic ideas of God into a more fluid process-based spirituality (Heelas and Woodhead 2005, Wigglesworth 2012, Mell 2012), can serve spiritual views of musicking (a temporal fluid art) and also answer problems within the concept of a sacred/secular divide (Bender 2010). It will see the potential for enabling a musical pedagogy based on respectful encounter (Levinas 1969, Buber 1970, Ellis 1985, Tisdell 2007, Boyce-Tillman 2010, Nussbaum 2012), challenging the value systems underpinning Western education.
Dr. Daiva Račiūnaitė-Vyčinienė
Professor at the Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre
TRANSMITTING SPIRITUAL ASPECTS OF THE LITHUANIAN POLYPHONIC “SUTARTINĖ” VOCAL TRADITION
Spirituality is traditionally considered to be a part of religious experience and often equated with religiousness. Lithuanian poly- phonic songs, called sutartinės are ascribed to a “cosmologic” era in which humans are described as being homo religiosus. Sutartinės may be considered an expression ofworldaudition or cosmoaudi- cion, describing man’s aural relationship with the environment. They were an integral part of rituals and represented the sacred side of the sacrum/profanum dichotomy. According to ancient tradition, sutartinės were sung by no other than nymphs and witches.
In the aesthetic of the Orient, music is perceived as harmonization of the sky, earth and the cosmos; the unity and interaction of contrasting forces of the universe (in China – the concept of yin-yang). There is also a distinct dualism or binarism in sutartinės. Harmonic ideas are similar as well. This is clear from the word sutartinė, which comes from the verb sutarti – to agree. Sutarti does not merely mean to reach agreement or peaceful accord, but to attune and to be in harmony. Therefore sutartinės are an expression of attunement and accordant sound.
The polyphony heard in sutartinės is an expression of archaic culture, exhibiting a cyclical concept of time. The music of sutartinės sounds endless, as in a closed circle. There are no perceivable breath breaks, culminations, introductions or final cadences so both per- formers and listeners enter into an analogous state of being, a hypnotizing experience.
The sutartinė tradition embodies many aspects of spirituality: it is a practice of ancient religion, disciplined hymnody, constrained emotion, the feeling of mystery, fear, transcendence, etc. The traditional transmission of sutartinės from one generation to the next has stopped. Today sutartinės are as exotic as the musics of other cultures. Nevertheless, it is here that people search for spirituality. This corresponds with the general tendency in the West to search for spirituality in the East, and many parameters ofsutartinės are more in line with musical concepts of the East than the West. This also applies to the music pedagogy that occurs in Eastern traditions (oral transmission of the tradition; the teacher as spiritual leader, etc.). In contemporary performances of sutartinės spirituality is manifested through an inner experience of sacredness, self-harmonization, feelings of community, musical and holistic coherence, relationship building with the audience, satisfaction with the end result, and illumination.
Habil. Dr. Vanda Aramavičiūtė,
Professor at Vilnius University;
Habil. Dr. Elvyda Martišauskienė
Professor at Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences
CONFIGURATION OF VALUES AS THE EXPRESSION OF SPIRITUALITY PARADIGM: THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL ASPECTS
The paradigm of spirituality is a paradoxical phenomenon in the contemporary world. On the one hand, connecting spirituality to the main objectives of the society is being intensified; on the other hand, attention to its expression in the socio-cultural environment is diminishing. Therefore, it seems relevant to explore the configuration of values as an advancement of the expression of spirituality on both theoretical and empirical level. Moreover, the research of spirituality paradigm will enable its purposeful development employing educational means.
In this regard, the aim of the presentation is to discuss the interrelationship between values and spirituality in theoretical and empirical aspects. Its objectives are: 1) to signify the importance of the perception of this relationship to the conception of spirituality, evaluation criteria and modeling of education; 2) to actualize approaches of con- temporary theories towards the systems of spiritual values, as well as their hierarchy and change; 3) to highlight the changes in value internalization of contemporary adolescents that have occurred in the last 10-11 years; 4) in this regard, to develop strategies for spiritual education that focus on the assimilation of fundamental spiritual values in the altering problematic socio-cultural space.
Lecturer at Klaipėda University
ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SPIRITUALITY
THROUGH CHORAL SINGING
Theoretical substantiation. Due to economic changes of the 21st century and the process of globalization more and more attention is devoted to consumer culture, which not only increases social exclusion, but also exposes problems of loneliness and alienation, devaluation of life values. In such context a necessity for spirituality as the factor substantiating a person’s existence and meaning of his/her activity reveals. Phenomenon of spirituality has been investigated by the representatives of various branches of science: theologizes, philosophers, and educologists (M. Nenly, I. Roger, K. Jaspers, V. Aramavičiūtė, O. Tijūnėlienė, and et al.). Specific character of art/artistic activity as of the means of education and expression of spirituality is disclosed in the works of Z. Rinkevičius, J. Kievišas, A. Girdzijauskas, A. Piličiauskas, and other authors.
Unfortunately, there is a lack of scientific works that analyze the problems of development of spirituality in specific spheres of artistic activity, including choir activity. Analysis of scientific literature as well as empirical research allow to state that choral singing is an effective means of education of a young personality, influencing its whole maturity, personal experience, motivation and, undoubtedly, spirituality.
Research methodology. The methods of literature analysis and pupils’ questionnaire have been chosen in order to reveal the peculiarities of development of spirituality through choral activity. The aim was to obtain many-sided information about aspects of spirituality in choral singing. The questionnaire was used to investigate choir members’ point of view towards development of spirituality through choral activity. Two hundred and eighty-three choir members from grades 5-8 took part in the research.
Conclusions. The research data obtained disclose that only a little more than half of the subjects agree with the statement that choral music has a positive influence on formation of a personality. From the indications describing influence of participation in choral activity on maturity of a personality respondent’s mark out development of voice and musical ear as particularly significant. Meanwhile, development of sense of responsibility, experiencing aesthetic feelings, broadening of cultural outlook are considered to be of less importance. Choir is attended willingly by only a little more than half of the subjects. These and other data allow to state that choir singers who participated in the research have not very benevolent point of view towards development of spirituality through choral singing. A necessity to look for effective ways and forms of development of spirituality through choral activity reveals.
Dr. Lilija Duoblienė
Professor and the Head of the
Education Department at
Faculty of Philosophy, Vilnius University
THE ALTERNATIVES OF SPIRITUALITY IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURAL TRANSMISSION: LITHUANIAN CASE
This presentation analyzes the influence of contemporary culture on education and cultural transmission, focusing the phenomena of new spirituality. Different viewpoints towards cultural changes and traces of spirituality in cultural education are presented and discussed, emphasizing their features. While presenting the traces of spirituality that are hidden behind the notion of new purposes of teaching, this work defends the idea that spirituality still is important in modern schooling and family and that it is step by step replacing traditional ways of religion spirituality at school and family. The topic evaluates cultural changes in the world by analyzing literature towards cultural changes in global and local context (Yeates, Moya, McLaren, Giroux), new relationships among participants of learning process (Kincheloe), and influence of new culture on the perception of students’ religion values (Wexler).
The empirical part presents the qualitative research conducted using the semi-structured interview. The aim was to find out how cultural identity is formed and transmitted in families and schools, and how cultural identity (national, linguistic, religious, gender, social) is changing. There were the 11th form students from 10 (5 city and 5 rural) schools as well as their parents, grandparents and teachers interviewed, 40 informants all in all.
The research data shows that students value families and the culture (traditions, language, religion) promoted in it. The research data did not provide evidence about the students’ identity hybridization and refusal of national cultural values. Students construct their identity by using the heritage of transmitted values and religious values among them. Students in comparison with their teachers and parents are more critical towards cultural changes and expect that values must be transmitted through live contact. From the empirical data it is obvious also that in the real life students’ cultural identity has more flexible and modern than the adults’. Some contradiction of the students’ responses raise the question for discussion – is the cultural identity of the students the pragmatic game of cultural values, symbols, stereotypes or the signal of their nostalgia for new spirituality? Key words: spirituality, secondary school, family, cultural transmission.
Dr. Arvydas Girdzijauskas
Headmaster and music teacher
at Klaipėda Vyduno secondary school, Lecturer at Klaipeda University
PRESUMPTIONS OF SPIRITUAL MUSIC TEACHING AT AGE 6-12
Quite a lot of research in different countries was performed to analyze the way, how and why young people listen to music and what is the outcome and relation of the young to the music listened to. However, the relations of music listening with spiritual traits of music education were not discussed very widely. The aim of this re- search is to discuss the traits of music listening of pupils from grades 4 and 5 in comparison with former research accomplished by R. Elkoshi (2009) analyzing natural associations children find while listening to music and to disclose presumptions of spiritual interpretations of these associations. The outcomes would help answering the question, what character of spirituality could be presented in music education at age 7-12 and how.
Method. One hundred and one pupil from grades 4 and 5 took part in the survey. They were questioned about their thoughts after listening to the prelude of Claude Debussy “Le vent dans la plaine”. Afterwards they were asked to draw their associations and to comment them. One hundred twenty-nine different verbal images were obtained. One hundred and four of them, or 80.6 percent were of narrative representational character. Only 3 descriptions carried pure musical characteristics (2.3 percent); 22, or 17.0 percent of images expressed mixed character. The research outcomes were compared with the outcomes of analogous research performed By R. Elkoshy in 2009 with younger children, and analyzed independently as well.
Outcomes: The research outcomes confirmed findings of the previous research (R. Elkoshi, 2009) that vast majority of children of age 5 to 9 use images thinking about music they listen to. According to the latter research even 73.6 percent of the subjects imagine pictorial representations reflecting their realistic experience. Only 2.3 percent of the subjects limit themselves with pure musical characteristics of music, such as descriptions of tempo, pitch or instruments on which the music is performed. The realistic character of images children present corresponds very much with the description of stages of cognitive development developed by J. Piaget, that is, the stage of concrete operations. Seeking for spiritual character of musical instruction in classes 1 to 5, the teacher must adjust to the natural way of children’s musical imagination / interpretation in order to be efficient, that is, understood and accepted by children. Therefore, mostly concrete approach to spiritual realm of musical development should be applied, which is mostly revealed in program music, songs, operas and musicals, revealed through realistic plot expressing human relations, understandable values such as friendship, caring, suffering, compassion, etc.
Jeffrey Glogowski, PhD
Middle school music teacher and choral director
WORKSHOP: TAKING PAUSE IN THE CLASSROOM
This presentation and workshop outlines and explains how the PAUSE technique, a decision-making tool based on the mindfulness theory and research of Glogowski (2012) integrates spirituality into music education. The technique is based on solutions and approaches offered from cognitive dissonance theory (Festinger, 1962), choice theory (Glasser, 1985), mindfulness theory (Langer, 1989), and the eastern perspective and philosophy that incorporate meditation into the music classroom connecting students, teacher, and spirit.
The word PAUSE is an acronym. The “P” stands for pause liter- ally. It reminds one to slow down, take time, think, and feel. The “A” stands for awareness and anicca. Awareness includes using all senses to take in the surroundings, situation, people, and self against a back- drop of impermanence. The “U” stands for understand, which means working through equanimity and balancing all the elements brought in through awareness with an objective of detachment and non- judgment. The “S” stands for sensations and self, which is a re- minder to include monitoring the breath and body sensations while working through the earlier stage of equanimity. The “E” stands for empathic engagement, which is the reminder to connect and help other people through decisive action and engagement.
This workshop walks through the results of implementing this technique to middle school students to support decision-making and helping students to pause, be aware, understand, and be clear and equanimous through sensations to engage with empathic action and connecting to essences and spirit. Furthermore, the workshop will also include a PAUSE technique demonstration and guided meditation to learn how to implement this technique.
Diana Harris, PhD
Open University, UK
TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING THE IMPORTANCE OF SPIRITUALITY IN MUSIC FROM NON-WESTERN CULTURES
In the UK we are required to teach about non-western music until the age of 14. The choice of music is up to the teacher, but typically schemes of work will relate to such diverse forms of music as the traditional music of the Asian subcontinent, reggae, African drum- ming or gamelan. These types of music are rarely taught with any understanding of the spirituality, or religion, which is frequently the very reason for their existence. Although Christianity is not the force it once was in the West it would be difficult to teach about religious Western art music without referring to Christianity. In many Eastern cultures, in particular, spirituality, either within or out with religion, is still much more central to all aspects of life, therefore it is even more important that this should be considered when teaching about the music of the regions. As part of my research into spirituality in the music classroom I have interviewed Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Jews and Christians in order to understand the relationship between spirituality and the music of their culture. In this paper I will present qualitative data from this research and show why it is essential that classroom music teachers have some understanding of these links in their classroom teaching.
Associate Professor at University of California, Los Angeles, USA
THROUGH THE LENS OF TAYLOR AND JAMES: BRINGING SPIRITUALITY INTO MUSIC EDUCATION
Music calls individuals to go beyond ourselves and be truly pre- sent to the possibility of exploring their spiritual selves. As music teachers we can make ourselves aware of opportunities to open the hearts of our students to the many varieties of spiritual experience that are available through music. Of course, neither musical nor spiritual experiences consist of just a single essence. Instead of being some sort of solitary mental entity, both provide a variety of ways for nurturing multiple emotions, fostering diverse understandings, cultivating different levels of connection and providing individuals with opportunities to encounter ecstatic experiences. The many behaviors that are central to music learning, which include ritualized activities, rational examination, deep reflection, dedicated practice, social engagement and mystical seeking, can be used to create openings for learners to explore their spiritual selves.
Using the writings of William James and Charles Taylor as a foundation, this paper explores the varieties of spiritual experiences that might be possible through the process of music education. James depicts the longing for the spiritual as a natural and healthy human psychological function. In his view, spirituality is something that individuals experience rather than an outward practice conforming to formalized norms. This understanding foreshadowed Taylor’s view that society now leaves individuals free to determine their own spiritual pathway, which is now a matter of inward looking personal devotion. The comparative framework developed by Dale Cannon of ritual performance, reasoned inquiry, meditation, devotion, social action and mystical quest, offers a structure for developing the sense of the spiritual in music learning settings. This philosophical inquiry explores how music learning can serve as a locus of self-exploration and collective connection that provides a pathway to the spirit, an invitation to engage in social interactions that will connect individuals to their inner selves, to each other and their community and experience the feeling of oneness with a larger entity that we identify as transcendent spiritual experience.
Lecturer at Vilnius University, a doctoral student of Education
BUILDING ON THE CONCEPTUALISATION AND UNDERSTANDING OF SPIRITUALITY. RELEVANT CONSTRUCTS AND RELEVANCE OF SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXTS
Although empirical study regarding the role of spirituality in human experience has increased markedly during the past few decades, disagreement continues regarding the nature of spirituality per se. Spirituality is conceptualised by the World Health Organisation and included in the WHO Quality of Life measure under the WHOQOL Module on Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs. The module posits that spirituality may be categorised under four domains: transcendence, personal relationships, codes to live by and specific beliefs. The four domains contain a total of 18 facets. This presentation will elucidate some of the facets of spirituality as conceptualised by the WHO and build on them by exploring interconnections with other constructs pertaining to spiritual growth such as spiritual intelligence, ego integrity and differentiation of self. The thesis of this paper is that mere knowledge about spirituality-related constructs, various socio-cultural contingencies and their implications for spiritual growth furthers self-education in spirituality, hence the need for the above mentioned undertakings. Spiritual intelligence is an advanced dimension of intelligence experienced in the form of integrity, wisdom, compassion, love, joy, peace and creativity. Ego integrity entails a complete acceptance of self, a healthy state of being and a person‘s holistic view of life. Differentiation of Self (DoS) is a social science construct which helps to integratively conceptualise Christian spiritual maturity and refers to a mature capacity to balance (1) thoughts and feelings, and (2) connection and independence in relationships. These constructs will be looked into by drawing on theories and findings of C. Wigglesworth, E. Erikson, J. Loevinger, M. Bowen, M. Kerr and S. Sandage – the theorists who have thoroughly explored them. The paper will also address the question of how certain facets of spirituality evolve in different socio-cultural contexts.
Dr. Diana Strakšienė
Professor (2) and master student (1) at Šiauliai University, Lithuania
ATTITUDE OF FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS TO ASSESSMENT OF PUPILS’ PROGRESS AND ACHIEVEMENTS: ASPECT OF CULTIVATION OF SPIRITUALITY
Currently ongoing changes in the society and in the system of education highlight importance of ethics and spiritual values in the process of education (Lietuvos Respublikos švietimo įstatymas, 2011). Therefore it is obvious that opportunities for fostering of values in a modern changing society become an increasingly more important problem. Influence of artistic / musical disciplines on enrichment of pupils’ emotions, spirit, and intellect as well as their ennobling based on knowledge of art or music related to life values is extremely important and undeniable. It must also be mentioned that culture is among the aims of music education (Rinkevičius, 2002). However, the pursuit to deepen and shape spiritual culture often gets overshadowed in the process of education as teachers do not give this enough efforts and attention (Kievišas, Kondratienė, 2009). In con- temporary scholarly papers cultivation of culture and spiritual values in Lithuanian system of education is approached as a multisided phenomenon (Girdzijauskas, 2011; Kašauskienė, 2011; Piličiauskas, 2012; Rinkevičius, 2011 et al.). In scholarly studies spirituality is regarded as an exclusive feature of a personality: spiritual values are presented as a part of individual culture, with the emphasis on sociocultural environment that affects spirituality (interpersonal communication, social culture, etc.) and personal activeness (Kievišas, Pabrėža, 2004).
Individual activeness of a personality in artistic / music education like in the entire system of education is influenced by assessment of progress and achievements (Kriščiūnaitė, Strakšienė, Deveikytė, 2011), which is important and inevitable in the process of education, though causing many internal conflicts and external misunderstandings, which became apparent in the course of analysis of peculiarities of cultivation of spiritual values. Assessment of pupils’ progress and achievements is particularly problematic in evaluation of professional activity of young, inexperienced teachers. Researches carried out (Kriščiūnaitė, Strakšienė, Deveikytė, 2011) demonstrate that assessment is troublesome for young teachers due to their lack of knowledge and educational experience. Assessment causes teachers occupational stress, sick rivalry when interacting with colleagues, and bad climate at work. These aspects negatively affect not only organisation of the process of education, but also cultivation of spiritual values of educatees. We can presume that such environment at educational institutions comes from well-established classical educational paradigm that often has the following features: a teacher is the central figure in education while a pupil is the subject of the process of education, the aim of the process of education is to impart cognitive knowledge and information, dominant relations are those of obedience / usefulness and allowed / not allowed. A mark in the process of education gains a negative connotation, as it is not a pupil’s personal growth and knowledge but unreached educational standard that is assessed (Kriščiūnaitė, Strakšienė, 2012). It can be presumed that classical educational paradigm based, i.e., knowledge conveyance oriented process is still present in training of future educators. Studying at a higher educational institution future music teachers gain knowledge of how to assess cognitive knowledge with- out interference from emotional / spiritual element. However, in art / music disciplines assessment based on spiritual values, which would not debase a pupil’s self-esteem but, on the contrary, stimulate personal activeness and shape a cultured and spiritual personality, should be dominant.
Keywords: pupil progress and achievement assessment, cultivation of spirituality, music education.
Dr. Frances le Roux
A physiotherapist in Fish Hoek, South Africa
THE EFFECTS OF BACH’S MAGNIFICAT ON EMOTIONS, IMMUNE AND ENDOCRINE PARAMETERS DURING PHYSIOTHERAPY TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH INFECTIOUS LUNG CONDITIONS
Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Bach’s Magnificat on emotions, immune and endocrine parameters in patients of specific infectious lung conditions (pneumonia and bronchitis).
Methods. Participants: (n=40), 9 men and 31 women ranging in age from 40 to 75 participated in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to an experimental and control group. HIV positive, secon- dary lung pathology and participants using immune modulated drugs were excluded. On the referral day, participants completed the Pro- file of Mood States (POMS) and 15cc blood was drawn and analyzed for the following parameters: Cortisol, DHEA, Cortisol:DHEA ratio, Lymphocyte populations (T- and B cells) including CD4:CD8 ratio and B-cells. Participants received standard respiratory physiotherapy; the experimental group listened to the Magnificat in D major BWV 243 by JS Bach for 30 minutes. The control group only received standard physiotherapy treatment. After third treatment day the measuring procedures were repeated.
Materials. The affective state was assessed utilizing the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Blood lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometric analysis: whole blood samples (EDTA anti-coagulated) were processed within 6hr of blood drawn. Fifty l of blood was mixed with 20 l aliquot of a mixture of monoclonal antibodies from Becton Dickson (SA Scientific, Cape Town). Adrenal cortisol and DHEA’s hormones were measured in clotted blood samples, they were centrifuged and serum stored at -20C until assayed. The two hormones were assayed with radio-immune assays. (Amersham, Cape Town). Statistical analyses were conducted using Repeated Measures ANOVA and significance levels were set at p = 0.05.
Results. Results indicate that the experimental group experienced a significant change in the following parameters: POMS scale; CD4+: CD8+ ratio, cortisol as well as the cortisol:DHEA ratio on the third day. The POMS subscale of anger and depression and tension were significantly decreased.
Conclusion. The research findings provide sufficient substantiation to conclude that immune modulation through the Magnificat is able to provide a positive emotional action, create motivation and confirm the healing value of music within both the psychosocial, biomedical and spiritual well-being of an illness.
Dr. Frances le Roux
A physiotherapist in Fish Hoek, South Africa
A LITERATURE REVIEW RE THE ROLE OF MUSIC TO OPTIMIZE HEALTHCARE
Introduction. The aim of this study is to systematically review literature on the effectiveness of music on patients’ health related out- comes, including spiritual wellbeing. Spiritual needs are often greater during illness and challenging times. A few Cochrane systematic reviews provide evidence that music may have health benefits for individuals. Of 61 trials of music interventions on patients only 4 trials consider evaluating the quality of life. The spiritual dimension is important to attainment of overall sense of health, wellbeing and quality of life.
Method. Nine electronic databases will be searched for randomized controlled trial designs published between 1983 and Nov 2012, following guidelines outlined in PRISMA (Prescribed Reporting Items for Systematic and Meta-analysis Statements). This will include a variety of clinical conditions, settings and all eligible studies that have used music interventions with focus on physiological, psychological outcomes, and self-report spiritual well-being evaluation. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstract for relevance research strategy.
Data extraction. Data from included studies will be extracted and compiled by one reviewer, and verified by the 2nd reviewer using a standard form, which includes information on each study (author- ship, year of publication, recruitment setting, intervention and quality rating). It will also include a second table describing outcomes measurement, tools, analyses and key findings.
Data analysis. Data quality will be assessed using the PEDro Scale, a comprehensive and reliable measure of the methodological quality of clinical trials, http://www.pedro.org.au/english/downloads/pedro-scale/. Because of heterogeneity in this study population of interventions used and out- comes measurement applied, it will not be feasible, nor appropriate to conduct a meta-analysis. The findings will be synthesized in a qualitative manner into categories based on the primary diagnosis or conditions of study participants.
Results. The results will be reflected a flow chart of the randomized controlled trials and qualitative synthesis of outcomes measures.
Raimonda Agne Medeisiene
PhD student at School of Education, University of Chester, UK
WORKSHOP SPIRITUALITY AND SUSTAINABILITY: FROM WORDS TOWARDS PERFORMANCE
Proposal for Social drama workshop “Tortoise`s world”
Safe and interactive drama workshop designed on use of media power in mix with drama methods. Short movie “Tortoise`s world” (~ 6 min) gives insight towards sustainability. The main idea: instead of raising empathy with tortoise or other characters and the disappearing word (this is obvious way), better to switch discussion to what irritating is in communicating about sustainability using safe and attractive interactive drama methods.
1. What steps could be taken to improve the awareness of active educated people – who are able to exert influence over their environments – towards sustainable development?
2. What is done in wrong way if there are no big changes till now in the thinking of people?
The methodology of discussion based on essential human needs` understanding (Rosenberg, M. B., 2003) and reflecting how dangerous of all behaviors can consist of doing things „because we`re sup- posed to.“ (Rosenberg, M.B., 2003, p. 140). Neelands claims that „The form of drama allows them to resolve situations through action<…> and discover their consequences. (1992, p. 66). He also describes specific drama techniques, which mixed with Johnstone, K. impro theatre strategy (1999) make social drama workshop more fun and dramatic.
The active power of social drama is described by Mckenzie`s dia- gram (2001, p. 67).
Dr. Beata Michalak
Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland
SPIRITUALITY AND MUSIC EDUCATION IN POLAND
A human is a spiritual being by his nature. Going away from spirituality leads to impoverishment, disappearance of higher feelings and treating the surrounding world and oneself in an instrumental way. Spirituality of art as human creation is something obvious. It is particularly vivid in the example of music, which as non-semantic art can reach people all over the world overcoming cultural barriers.
It appears that if spirituality of music is natural, spirituality conveyed in musical education shall be equally obvious. However, reality shows that it does not always take place.
In idea of education in Poland, a mention concerning spiritual aspect of art has appeared recently, before it was impossible due to execution of a communist vision of the world. And despite the fact that the need for spiritual development of a human, the need for deepening of humanist motivation for human choices, decisions and actions is more and more bravely articulated, and thus personalistic dimension of education, it is reflected in a small degree in everyday practice. Why is it so?
In order to illustrate this problem I carried out a research among the teachers of music education, university teachers educating would be teachers of this subject and students who soon are to be teachers of music and they still perfectly remember their experiences from school. The aim of the research was, among the others, to answer the question – whether teachers, scientists and students feel the need for spirituality in music education, whether existing music coursebooks create such opportunity for them, whether they associate spirituality with religious, metaphysical or any other aspect, whether the young need spirituality in education, whether they can find it, if not – are they looking for it on their own? The result of the research shall be the subject of my paper at the conference in Vilnius.
PhD philosophy student at Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania
INVISIBILITY IN THE VISUAL IMAGES OF SOCIOCULTURAL ENVIRONMENT
I would like to present a topic regarding the possibility of cultivation of spirituality through visual images. Spirituality is understood as a mode of being, an ability to open oneself to what is not presented as an object, i.e. what cannot be looked at. The very word „spirit“, meaning breath, seems to suggest little hope for capturing it through vision, which requires an object. How would a non- objectifying relation with something, which is an object, be possible? May a non-objective relation be possible through that which is an object? Such a possibility is shown by a contemporary French philosopher Jean-Luc Marion. In his discussion of a painting invisibility becomes the very center of visibility, making it possible. According to him, the function of visibility of an authentic painting is to reveal the invisible. Invisibility rises not as a defect indicating that there is a lack of something but as an excess – similar to the way silence is not just a lack of sound, but a positive phenomenon which can be heard. A painting in which invisibility reveals itself best – and becomes a crossing of invisible gazes – is called an icon. To meet an invisible look and to see the invisible requires a certain attitude and a certain time. We may and probably should ask – do visual images in our common sociocultural environment provide such a possibility? In other words, can images of a movie, a TV screen, a magazine or an advertisement become icons which open up to the invisible Other? These questions will be opened together with description of particular situations.
Key words: Invisibility, icon, Jean-Luc Marion, call, mass media
Dr. Zvonimir Nagy
Assistant Professor of Music
at Duquesne University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
FROM SOUL – WITHIN SOUND – TO SELF
Recent cross-cultural studies in music psychology, neuroscience, and music education suggest a direct correlation between musical creativity and spirituality. I define musical invention as a creative spiritual process – a relationship between the two attributes of musical creation: the cognitive and performative ones described in terms of symbolic and stylized acts or actions controlled and sustained by the cognitive nervous system, and the emotional and spiritual attributes that may be understood as the mind’s enactment of musical contemplation or prayer. From an interdisciplinary point of view, the paper speculates that during musical composition or performance the consciousness may be mapped in the brain, resulting in cognitive pathways that could suggest the consideration for the sense of our inner self. In this light, the paper describes musical creativity as a form of self-realization – a discovery and manifestation of the existence of an authentic self. This activity effectuated by mental, psychological, or spiritual introspection and often, an ascetic attitude suggests an interdependence of musical sound and our understanding of the soul and inner self. The paper offers an understanding of musical creativity as spiritual phenomenon: it puts forward a rich discourse between music psychology, education, and diverse cultural belief systems on one end, and the cognitive plasticity of our spirituality in the cultural contexts of musical creativity, on the other. In support of this hypothesis, an analysis of pertinent morphologies and processes found in musical composition and performance is discussed. Engaging in an inter-cultural and inter-spiritual dialogue, I suggest an interdependence of musical creativity and religious experience in music, a fact that that gives the notion of human spirit the central form of expression in the performing arts.
A senior lecturer in Aural Training and Music Education
at the North-West University, South Africa
PLAYING THE VIOLIN: A VEHICLE TO SPIRITUAL WELL-BEING
Roughly 1.4 million children in South Africa live without one or both of their parents. This is the tragic result of the HIV/AIDS pandemic that has left many children parentless. Due to the high level of poverty many of these children are cared for by orphan care programmes, grandparents or extended family members. These children have no sense of belonging or the emotional consistency that a stable family can provide. Their need to belong and connect to other people can be facilitated through a positive pattern of engagement with themselves, other learners, teachers, their families and the community.
Spiritual wellbeing is an integral part of mental, emotional and physical health. The purpose of this case study is to explore the spiritual transformation of learners and teachers in violin teaching programmes and it specifically focuses on learners who face a lack of economic means as well as social problems and who were not previously confronted with formal music education activities on a regular basis.
The following dimensions of spirituality will be explored, namely meaning and purpose, moral and ethical values and connectedness in terms of the way they have an impact on the spiritual well-being of learners who participate in violin teaching programmes. Qualitative case study research within an interpretivist framework was under- taken in order to evaluate the effect of these outcomes. The participants in this study are members of violin teaching programmes in the Gauteng and North-West Provinces of South Africa. Data collection was done through observations, open-ended questions and unstructured interviews. Through data analysis the following themes were identified: a sense of emotional wellbeing, connectedness, meaning and purpose, values, enhanced self-esteem and spiritual upliftment.
Music Director of the Youth Orchestra Academy “I Piccoli Pomeriggi Musicali” and of the
”Tito Livio” Classical High School.
SPIRITUAL IN MUSIC AS ESOTERIC PRACTICE
In this paper I will attempt a definition of spirituality as strictly connected with the term “esotericism”, and I will link this definition with educational practice and music.
Esotericism has always been defined as the “universal religion” and as such has two components: the theoretical and the practical aspect. Theoretical esotericism is also known as theosophy, and its main Western exponents were Madame Blavatsky and Annie Besant, together with Alice Bailey. The practical side of esotericism has been called occultism by several authors, such as Ferrero and Di Terlizzi. Both aspects relate with what we call spirituality, as they both ex- press a concept of inner research, self-awareness and connection with divinity, whatever name we might prefer to call it. The immense potential in educational terms appears obvious: from the Magic Flute onto all Masonic Western music, we can trace a strict link between esotericism and classical music, and indeed not only Western music has its deep link with esoteric practices… Wherever we find spiritual and esoteric music, it might be important to question the value and responsibility of the educator in knowing and transmitting the spiritual background for such music. Furthermore, if there is a spiritual, or esoteric practice which has actually informed the musical composition itself, should the educator be acquainted with it or not is an important matter itself.
Finally, I will link my experience in conducting youth orchestras with esoteric practices known in the world.
Dr. Alla Nickolaevna Rastrygina,
Professor at Kirovograd State Pedagogical University named after Volodymyr Vynnychenko, Ukraine
MODERN DIRECTIONS OF MUSIC EDUCATION IN UKRAINE
Background: The pedagogy of artistic education in Ukraine is represented by the serious theoretical and methodological research studies on the value aspects of spirituality (I.Bekh), on the role of art in the becoming of spirituality of a personality (І.Zyazyun, O. Olek- syuk), on ability for creation as a part of the spiritual potential of an artistic profile specialist (O. Otich, G.Padalka). Our scientific school was one of the first in Ukraine to initiate research of spirituality of the art educational space of the higher school and its opportunities in personal and professional development of a future teacher-musician.
Aims: The main task of the article is to present the current state of the music teacher education in Ukraine and to define possible conditions for its transformation in the context of humanistic paradigm.
Methods: The methodological basis of the research is the pedagogy of freedom provisions, stating that the unified mass way of life was substituted by individualized needs of each of the subjects of educational process in free self-development, self-expression and self-realization; the ideas referring to individual educational space of a personality and specificity of the artistic educational environment; and the relationship of the processes of artistic perception and creation of the art with becoming and developing of spiritual potential of a personality.
Findings: The field of art education space, which functions as a separate area of knowledge in accordance with the laws peculiar only to this field, nowadays has much wider horizons than prescribed by the limits of the current conventional training programs for professional musicians. This is determined, above all, by the shift of socio- cultural status of art, which takes place in conjunction with adoption of scientific and artistic paradigm on the European scale. Besides, the reconstruction of the modern music teacher education as a priority direction of its development, envisages its versatility, access to the adjacent cultural spheres, capacity for innovation and creative search. Consequently, the right for freedom of choice of their own individual path of development in accordance with personal spiritual values, in our view, should become prerogative in the process of training of a future professional musician. That is, to replace the still existing traditional approach to education as a system of knowledge, there should really come humanistic education paradigm, aimed at establishing of individual culture of a personality as the basis of its spirituality and at ensuring such possibility in the art educational environment of the higher school.
David J. Redman
Ph.D student at the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida, USA
POSTER. MOTIVATION OF CHURCH CHOIR MUSICIANS
Churches that include music as a component of their worship ser- vice are always searching for new and inventive ways for music to enhance the service. Vocal and Instrumental music is often included in Protestant church services to work in conjunction with the spoken word and to elevate the human emotion of the listener as well as presenter. Music of the church contains “the clearest, most memorable, cohesive and widely repeated expressions” (Noll, 1999, p.38) of Christianity. Clearly, music has a profound impact on the retention of information and helping people feel closer to God (Swickard, 2008). Certain musical structures and compositional devices have been known to elicit strong experiences of emotion (Waterman, 1996, Sloboda, 1991a). These emotions, when presented through a choral anthem, organ prelude, vocal solo or any other means of artistry may elevate the message and worship experience to a height that is complimentary to the worship content. Realizing the need for musicians in worship, churches and church choral directors are aware of the need to enhance their choral program to make them attractive to potential new members within or outside of the church. If church leaders are able to identify the qualities that attract potential choristers to sing in the choir, more church members may desire to sing in the choir and a larger choir may result in the church being viewed by potential church-goers as an attribute in their decision to attend the service. In contrast, factors need to be identified why church members choose not to sing in the choir. In this study, the motivations of why church members sing with the church choir will be examined as well as reasons that members of the church body elect not to sing in the choir. Several church choirs from the Central Florida region will serve as participants in the study. Members of the church choirs whose members (estimated n = 100) will be asked to voluntarily participate in completing a written survey consisting of questions related to the spiritual, emotional, educational and social reasons as to why they choose to participate or not participate in the choir at their church. Analysis of the research data will show that spiritual, emotional, educational or social qualities may be the reason that motivates one to sing with the church choir. Specific questions from the topics of spiritual, emotion, social and educational qualities will be analyzed from a survey questionnaire to compare what motivates or dissuades ones participation in the church choir.
Teaches piano privately
West Los Angeles and Pasadena, California, USA
NURTURING SPIRITUALITY THROUGH
THE SUZUKI PHILOSOPHY OF MUSIC EDUCATION
There are many different approaches that introduce music making to children. The Suzuki method believes all children have potential to learn to play a musical instrument and that ability, or talent, is not only inherent in each child but can be developed. This paper explores how this egalitarian approach to learning a musical instrument embraces the spiritual concept that students and teachers can connect on a deep level through music making; that spiritual connections through music are open to everyone, not just a select few with prodigious talent.
The Suzuki philosophy that “Every Child Can” encourages the step-by-step development of ability rather than the identification of special talent in a small percentage of children.
Suzuki teachers do not initially promise to prepare young children for future careers as performers; rather, the goal is to first teach the child technical and musical basics, so that a desire to play music is nourished. The careful sequencing of musical concepts in Suzuki pedagogy in conjunction with the Suzuki repertoire promotes development of deep musical understandings along with the technical skills necessary to gradually advance through the literature. The excitement experienced through learning and performing creates a space whereby spiritual connections develop between the learner and the music as well as the student and the teacher.
By delaying the onset of teaching music reading until the child has mastered basic tone production the Suzuki method supports a more elemental approach to learning music: ear before eye. Because there is no “other” to interfere with acquiring initial playing skills, the child may internalize music more quickly; this promotes a spiritual connection between student and music and from student to teacher. The satisfaction of playing even a simple melody musically with beautiful tone further encourages the student to continue practicing and advancing through the repertoire. This paper uses narrative inquiry to demonstrate how Suzuki pedagogy nurtures spiritual connections via music making in young children.
A research assistant at Nordoff Robbins and a music therapist at St. Christopher’s hospice, UK
MUSIC THERAPISTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF SPIRITUALITY: OUTCOMES FROM AN INTERNATIONAL SURVEY
Background: Despite various philosophical explorations regarding spirituality and its place within different music therapy approaches (such as Nordoff Robbins Music Therapy, Guided Imagery and Music, Anthroposophical Music Therapy), only a small number of empirical studies has been conducted in this area to date. This study is the first international survey to explore music therapists’ perceptions of spirituality across different cultural contexts.
Aims: This study aims to explore music therapists’ perceptions of spirituality and its relevance to music therapy. Music therapists’ perceptions are studied in relation to different aspects of their personal and professional life, including their cultural and religious back- ground, as well as their music therapy training and working experience.
Methods: A pragmatic methodological stance informs this study. Data was collected through an online survey questionnaire, which was open to professional and student music therapists across the world. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the collected data as appropriate.
Findings: A large number of music therapists (n=358) took part in this study. The findings give an insight into music therapists’ meanings and experiences of spirituality, as well as on how spirituality is (or is not) integrated into their training, practice, and professional life. Also, dilemmas that music therapists face, as well as their suggestions for future actions regarding spirituality and music therapy, are explored. The study findings come to add to the growing evidence regarding spirituality and music therapy with the hope to instigate interdisciplinary (and cross-cultural) dialogues between different music-related disciplines, including music education.
Ph.D student at Vilnius University, Lithuania
AESTHETIC PERCEPTION AND NARRATIVE: PROSPECTS OF MUSICAL EDUCATION
The teacher’s narrative in the phenomenological context is key to the process of personal self-expression in the exiting reality and the construction of self, based on personal experience. Experience is formed by all previous experiences, which change the ordinary perception and provide a new meaning to what has happened. Within the phenomenological tradition, aesthetic perception is defined as aesthetic experience because it is pre-predicative, reveals a different world outlook and opens up the space for the continuous spreading of new meanings since speaking about aesthetic experience is essentially metaphorical. In the process of aesthetic education, the educator and the educated construe new meanings through individual experience, which are parallel to metaphorical experience. Musical education has yet another aspect to it: the phenomenon of music is inseparable from human musical experience because music is perceived not only by the mind but also by a “conscious body” and serves as a bridge between the listener and the sound.
Dr. Remigijus Vitkauskas,
Associate Professor at Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences, Vilnius
THE ASPECTS OF STASYS ŠALKAUSKIS’ PHILOSOPHICAL PEDAGOGY AND MUSIC EDUCATION DURING THE POST-SOVIET AGES IN LITHUANIA
This research presents the classification of music education trends based on Stasys Šalkauskis’ (1886 – 1941) paradigms. In his peda-Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences, Vilnius gogical works, professor Šalkauskis formulates specific to Lithuania “complete education”, “integral synthetism” and other philosophic categories. Antanas Maceina describes these as “idealistic realism”. The philosophical-pedagogical-methodological instrument of idealistic realism is especially useful for the optimisation of all-round music education in the post-Soviet Lithuanian pedagogy of music.
During the short historic period when professor Šalkauskis’ phi- losophical-scientific activities were the most intensive (1935-1945) and served as an antipode for the demolishing and devastating Second World War, a powerful creative wave of philosophical- pedagogical-psychological thoughts arose in Europe and across the ocean. At that time R. Rogers’ humanistic psychotherapy works (1942 Counselling and Psychotherapy, Ohio State University) were began to be published, A. Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs (1943 Psychological Review, 50) and other works were published. When Maceina was writing an article (in 1936, Lithuania) dedicated to the 50th birth anniversary of Stasys Šalkauskis, Maceina named his own philosophical attitudes of a teacher as “idealistic realism”. This is a qualitatively new category, one that connects the philosophical ideas of Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and V. Solovjov at its source.
Subject of the research: The development of general music education in Lithuania during the post-Soviet times.
Goal of the research: To present and classify, based on the principles of humanistic pedagogy and the idealistic realism paradigm, the new music education systems and concepts created in Lithuania during the post-Soviet times.
1. To analyse the pedagogical development peculiarities of this period pupils’ musical culture education.
2. To present the traits of education realism, which is dominant in music pedagogy, paradigm.
3. To reveal the advantages of idealistic realism paradigm music education.
Research methods: Scientific analysis of the problem based on philosophical, psychological and pedagogical literature; historical descriptive method; analysis of music education literature and education documents.
Keywords: music education; realistic education trend; idealistic realism; musical culture; spiritual pedagogy; self-actualisation.
Volodymyr Grygorovich Zhyvytskiy
A postgraduate student at Kirovohrad State Pedagogical University named after Volodymyr Vynnytchenko, Ukraine
FORMATION OF A CREATIVE PERSONALITY OF A FUTURE TEACHER- MUSICIAN BY MEANS OF AUDIOVISUAL TECHNOLOGIES
Background: The problem of a creative personality of future teachers-musicians has been discussed to some extent in the research of philosophers, psychologists and educators. We have conducted our own experiment where the use of audiovisual technologies plays an important role.
Aims: The scientific research has been carried out so as to investigate the feasibility of introduction of new forms of innovative technologies, including audiovisual technologies applied in the creative project, in the process of formation of future music teacher’s creative personality.
Methods: The experiment was held in Kirovohrad Volodymyr Vynnychenko State Pedagogical University with participation of students of different years and departments. Questionnaires, interviews, and surveys have been used to analyze the effectiveness of new technologies.
Findings: More than 200 students have participated in the experiment consisting of about 10 creative projects. Analysis of the pilot research has showed that students’ participation in creation of art projects is an essential condition to formation and development of spirituality of future teachers-musicians.
Klaipėdos universiteto leidykla
2nd International Conference of Spirituality and Music Education (SAME)
SPIRITUALITY, MUSIC AND EDUCATION IN A CULTURAL CONTEXT
Viršelio autorius Vilhelmas Giedraitis Klaipėda, 2013
SL 1335. 2013 06 10. Apimtis 2,5 sąl. sp. l. Tiražas 90 egz. Išleido ir spausdino Klaipėdos universiteto leidykla Herkaus Manto g. 84, LT-92294 Klaipėda
Tel. (8 ~ 46) 398 891, el. paštas: email@example.com